Accessing nested JavaScript objects with string key

Accessing nested JavaScript objects with string key

I have a data structure like this :
var someObject = {
‘part1’ : {
‘name’: ‘Part 1’,
‘size’: ’20’,
‘qty’ : ’50’
},
‘part2’ : {
‘name’: ‘Part 2’,
‘size’: ’15’,
‘qty’ : ’60’
},
‘part3’ : [
{
‘name’: ‘Part 3A’,
‘size’: ’10’,
‘qty’ : ’20’
}, {
‘name’: ‘Part 3B’,
‘size’: ‘5’,
‘qty’ : ’20’
}, {
‘name’: ‘Part 3C’,
‘size’: ‘7.5’,
‘qty’ : ’20’
}
]
};

And I would like to access the data using these variable :
var part1name = “part1.name”;
var part2quantity = “part2.qty”;
var part3name1 = “part3[0].name”;

part1name should be filled with someObject.part1.name ‘s value, which is “Part 1”. Same thing with part2quantity which filled with 60.
Is there anyway to achieve this with either pure javascript or JQuery?

Solutions/Answers:

Solution 1:

I just made this based on some similar code I already had, it appears to work:

Object.byString = function(o, s) {
    s = s.replace(/\[(\w+)\]/g, '.$1'); // convert indexes to properties
    s = s.replace(/^\./, '');           // strip a leading dot
    var a = s.split('.');
    for (var i = 0, n = a.length; i < n; ++i) {
        var k = a[i];
        if (k in o) {
            o = o[k];
        } else {
            return;
        }
    }
    return o;
}

Usage::

Object.byString(someObj, 'part3[0].name');

See a working demo at http://jsfiddle.net/alnitak/hEsys/

EDIT some have noticed that this code will throw an error if passed a string where the left-most indexes don’t correspond to a correctly nested entry within the object. This is a valid concern, but IMHO best addressed with a try / catch block when calling, rather than having this function silently return undefined for an invalid index.

Solution 2:

This is the solution I use:

function resolve(path, obj=self, separator='.') {
    var properties = Array.isArray(path) ? path : path.split(separator)
    return properties.reduce((prev, curr) => prev && prev[curr], obj)
}

Example usage:

// accessing property path on global scope
resolve("document.body.style.width")
// or
resolve("style.width", document.body)

// accessing array indexes
// (someObject has been defined in the question)
resolve("part3.0.size", someObject) // returns '10'

// accessing non-existent properties
// returns undefined when intermediate properties are not defined:
resolve('properties.that.do.not.exist', {hello:'world'})

// accessing properties with unusual keys by changing the separator
var obj = { object: { 'a.property.name.with.periods': 42 } }
resolve('object->a.property.name.with.periods', obj, '->') // returns 42

// accessing properties with unusual keys by passing a property name array
resolve(['object', 'a.property.name.with.periods'], obj) // returns 42

Limitations:

  • Can’t use brackets ([]) for array indices—though specifying array indices between the separator token (e.g., .) works fine as shown above.

Solution 3:

This is now supported by lodash using _.get(obj, property). See https://lodash.com/docs#get

Example from the docs:

var object = { 'a': [{ 'b': { 'c': 3 } }] };

_.get(object, 'a[0].b.c');
// → 3

_.get(object, ['a', '0', 'b', 'c']);
// → 3

_.get(object, 'a.b.c', 'default');
// → 'default'

Solution 4:

You’d have to parse the string yourself:

function getProperty(obj, prop) {
    var parts = prop.split('.');

    if (Array.isArray(parts)) {
        var last = parts.pop(),
        l = parts.length,
        i = 1,
        current = parts[0];

        while((obj = obj[current]) && i < l) {
            current = parts[i];
            i++;
        }

        if(obj) {
            return obj[last];
        }
    } else {
        throw 'parts is not valid array';
    }
}

This required that you also define array indexes with dot notation:

var part3name1 = "part3.0.name";

It makes the parsing easier.

DEMO

Solution 5:

Works for arrays / arrays inside the object also.
Defensive against invalid values.

/**
 * Retrieve nested item from object/array
 * @param {Object|Array} obj
 * @param {String} path dot separated
 * @param {*} def default value ( if result undefined )
 * @returns {*}
 */
function path(obj, path, def){
    var i, len;

    for(i = 0,path = path.split('.'), len = path.length; i < len; i++){
        if(!obj || typeof obj !== 'object') return def;
        obj = obj[path[i]];
    }

    if(obj === undefined) return def;
    return obj;
}

//////////////////////////
//         TEST         //
//////////////////////////

var arr = [true, {'sp ace': true}, true]

var obj = {
  'sp ace': true,
  arr: arr,
  nested: {'dotted.str.ing': true},
  arr3: arr
}

shouldThrow(`path(obj, "arr.0")`);
shouldBeDefined(`path(obj, "arr[0]")`);
shouldBeEqualToNumber(`path(obj, "arr.length")`, 3);
shouldBeTrue(`path(obj, "sp ace")`);
shouldBeEqualToString(`path(obj, "none.existed.prop", "fallback")`, "fallback");
shouldBeTrue(`path(obj, "nested['dotted.str.ing'])`);
<script src="https://cdn.rawgit.com/coderek/e7b30bac7634a50ad8fd/raw/174b6634c8f57aa8aac0716c5b7b2a7098e03584/js-test.js"></script>

Solution 6:

ES6: Only one line in Vanila JS (it return null if don’t find instead of giving error):

'path.string'.split('.').reduce((p,c)=>p&&p[c]||null, MyOBJ)

or exemple:

'a.b.c'.split('.').reduce((p,c)=>p&&p[c]||null, {a:{b:{c:1}}})

For a ready to use function that also recognizes false, 0 and negative number and accept default values as parameter:

const resolvePath = (object, path, defaultValue) => path
   .split('.')
   .reduce((o, p) => o ? o[p] : defaultValue, object)

Exemple to use:

resolvePath(window,'document.body') => <body>
resolvePath(window,'document.body.xyz') => undefined
resolvePath(window,'document.body.xyz', null) => null
resolvePath(window,'document.body.xyz', 1) => 1

Bonus:

To set a path (Requested by @rob-gordon) you can use:

const setPath = (object, path, value) => path
   .split('.')
   .reduce((o,p,i) => o[p] = path.split('.').length === ++i ? value : o[p] || {}, object)

Example:

let myVar = {}
setPath(myVar, 'a.b.c', 42) => 42
console.log(myVar) => {a: {b: {c: 42}}}

Access array with []:

const resolvePath = (object, path, defaultValue) => path
   .split(/[\.\[\]\'\"]/)
   .filter(p => p)
   .reduce((o, p) => o ? o[p] : defaultValue, object)

exemple

const myVar = {a:{b:[{c:1}]}}
resolvePath(myVar,'a.b[0].c') => 1
resolvePath(myVar,'a["b"][\'0\'].c') => 1