Assign variable in if condition statement, good practice or not?

Assign variable in if condition statement, good practice or not?

I moved one years ago from classic OO languages such like Java to JavaScript. The following code is definitely not recommended (or even not correct) in Java:
if(dayNumber = getClickedDayNumber(dayInfo))
{
alert(“day number found : ” + dayNumber);
}
function getClickedDayNumber(dayInfo)
{
dayNumber = dayInfo.indexOf(“fc-day”);
if(dayNumber != -1) //substring found
{
//normally any calendar month consists of “40” days, so this will definitely pick up its day number.
return parseInt(dayInfo.substring(dayNumber+6, dayNumber+8));
}
else return false;
}

Basically I just found out that I can assign a variable to a value in an if condition statement, and immediately check the assigned value as if it is boolean.
For a safer bet, I usually separate that into two lines of code, assign first then check the variable, but now that I found this, I am just wondering whether is it good practice or not in the eyes of experienced JavaScript developers?

Solutions/Answers:

Solution 1:

I wouldn’t recommend it. The problem is, it looks like a common error where you try to compare values, but use a single = instead of == or ===. For example, when you see this:

if (value = someFunction()) {
    ...
}

you don’t know if that’s what they meant to do, or if they intended to write this:

if (value == someFunction()) {
    ...
}

If you really want to do the assignment in place, I would recommend doing an explicit comparison as well:

if ((value = someFunction()) === <whatever truthy value you are expecting>) {
    ...
}

Solution 2:

I see no proof that it is not good practice. Yes, it may look like a mistake but that is easily remedied by judicious commenting. Take for instance:

if (x = processorIntensiveFunction()) { // declaration inside if intended
    alert(x);
}

Why should that function be allowed to run a 2nd time with:

alert(processorIntensiveFunction());

Because the first version LOOKS bad? I cannot agree with that logic.

Solution 3:

I did it many times. To bypass the JavaScript warning, I add two parens:

if ((result = get_something())) { }

You should avoid it, if you really want to use it, write a comment above it saying what you are doing.

Solution 4:

You can do this in Java too. And no, it’s not a good practice. 🙂

(And use the === in Javascript for typed equality. Read Crockford’s The Good Parts book on JS.)

Solution 5:

There is one case when you do it, with while-loops.
When reading files, you usualy do like this:

void readFile(String pathToFile) {
    // Create a FileInputStream object
    FileInputStream fileIn = null;
    try {
        // Create the FileInputStream
        fileIn = new FileInputStream(pathToFile);
        // Create a variable to store the current line's text in
        String currentLine;
        // While the file has lines left, read the next line,
        // store it in the variable and do whatever is in the loop
        while((currentLine = in.readLine()) != null) {
            // Print out the current line in the console
            // (you can do whatever you want with the line. this is just an example)
            System.out.println(currentLine);
        }
    } catch(IOException e) {
        // Handle exception
    } finally {
        try {
            // Close the FileInputStream
            fileIn.close();
        } catch(IOException e) {
            // Handle exception
        }
    }
}

Look at the while-loop at line 9. There, a new line is read and stored in a variable, and then the content of the loop is ran. I know this isn’t an if-statement, but I guess a while loop can be included in your question as well.

The reason to this is that when using a FileInputStream, every time you call FileInputStream.readLine(), it reads the next line in the file, so if you would have called it from the loop with just fileIn.readLine() != null without assigning the variable, instead of calling (currentLine = fileIn.readLine()) != null, and then called it from inside of the loop too, you would only get every second line.

Hope you understand, and good luck!

Solution 6:

You can do assignments within if statements in Java as well. A good example would be reading something in and writing it out:

http://www.exampledepot.com/egs/java.io/CopyFile.html?l=new

The code:

// Copies src file to dst file.
// If the dst file does not exist, it is created
void copy(File src, File dst) throws IOException 
{
    InputStream in = new FileInputStream(src);
    OutputStream out = new FileOutputStream(dst);

    // Transfer bytes from in to out
    byte[] buf = new byte[1024];
    int len;
    while ((len = in.read(buf)) > 0) {
        out.write(buf, 0, len);
    }
    in.close();
    out.close();
}