Call async/await functions in parallel

Call async/await functions in parallel

As far as I understand, in ES7/ES2016 putting multiple await’s in code will work similar to chaining .then() with promises, meaning that they will execute one after the other rather than in parallerl. So, for example, we have this code:
await someCall();
await anotherCall();

Do I understand it correctly that anotherCall() will be called only when someCall() is completed? What is the most elegant way of calling them in parallel?
I want to use it in Node, so maybe there’s a solution with async library?
EDIT: I’m not satisfied with the solution provided in this question: Slowdown due to non-parallel awaiting of promises in async generators, because it uses generators and I’m asking about a more general use case.

Solutions/Answers:

Solution 1:

You can await on Promise.all():

await Promise.all([someCall(), anotherCall()]);

To store the results:

let [someResult, anotherResult] = await Promise.all([someCall(), anotherCall()]);

Solution 2:

TL;DR

Use Promise.all for the parallel function calls, the answer behaviors not correctly when the error occurs.


First, execute all the asynchronous calls at once and obtain all the Promise objects. Second, use await on the Promise objects. This way, while you wait for the first Promise to resolve the other asynchronous calls are still progressing. Overall, you will only wait for as long as the slowest asynchronous call. For example:

// Begin first call and store promise without waiting
const someResult = someCall();

// Begin second call and store promise without waiting
const anotherResult = anotherCall();

// Now we await for both results, whose async processes have already been started
const finalResult = [await someResult, await anotherResult];

// At this point all calls have been resolved
// Now when accessing someResult| anotherResult,
// you will have a value instead of a promise

JSbin example: http://jsbin.com/xerifanima/edit?js,console

Caveat: It doesn’t matter if the await calls are on the same line or on different lines, so long as the first await call happens after all of the asynchronous calls. See JohnnyHK’s comment.


Update: this answer has a different timing in error handling according to the @bergi’s answer, it does NOT throw out the error as the error occurs but after all the promises are executed.
I compare the result with @jonny’s tip: [result1, result2] = Promise.all([async1(), async2()]), check the following code snippet

const correctAsync500ms = () => {
  return new Promise(resolve => {
    setTimeout(resolve, 500, 'correct500msResult');
  });
};

const correctAsync100ms = () => {
  return new Promise(resolve => {
    setTimeout(resolve, 100, 'correct100msResult');
  });
};

const rejectAsync100ms = () => {
  return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    setTimeout(reject, 100, 'reject100msError');
  });
};

const asyncInArray = async (fun1, fun2) => {
  const label = 'test async functions in array';
  try {
    console.time(label);
    const p1 = fun1();
    const p2 = fun2();
    const result = [await p1, await p2];
    console.timeEnd(label);
  } catch (e) {
    console.error('error is', e);
    console.timeEnd(label);
  }
};

const asyncInPromiseAll = async (fun1, fun2) => {
  const label = 'test async functions with Promise.all';
  try {
    console.time(label);
    let [value1, value2] = await Promise.all([fun1(), fun2()]);
    console.timeEnd(label);
  } catch (e) {
    console.error('error is', e);
    console.timeEnd(label);
  }
};

(async () => {
  console.group('async functions without error');
  console.log('async functions without error: start')
  await asyncInArray(correctAsync500ms, correctAsync100ms);
  await asyncInPromiseAll(correctAsync500ms, correctAsync100ms);
  console.groupEnd();

  console.group('async functions with error');
  console.log('async functions with error: start')
  await asyncInArray(correctAsync500ms, rejectAsync100ms);
  await asyncInPromiseAll(correctAsync500ms, rejectAsync100ms);
  console.groupEnd();
})();

Solution 3:

Update:

The original answer makes it difficult (and in some cases impossible) to correctly handle promise rejections. The correct solution is to use Promise.all:

const [someResult, anotherResult] = await Promise.all([someCall(), anotherCall()]);

Original answer:

Just make sure you call both functions before you await either one:

// Call both functions
const somePromise = someCall();
const anotherPromise = anotherCall();

// Await both promises    
const someResult = await somePromise;
const anotherResult = await anotherPromise;

Solution 4:

There is another way without Promise.all() to do it in parallel:

First, we have 2 functions to print numbers:

function printNumber1() {
   return new Promise((resolve,reject) => {
      setTimeout(() => {
      console.log("Number1 is done");
      resolve(10);
      },1000);
   });
}

function printNumber2() {
   return new Promise((resolve,reject) => {
      setTimeout(() => {
      console.log("Number2 is done");
      resolve(20);
      },500);
   });
}

This is sequential:

async function oneByOne() {
   const number1 = await printNumber1();
   const number2 = await printNumber2();
} 
//Output: Number1 is done, Number2 is done

This is parallel:

async function inParallel() {
   const promise1 = printNumber1();
   const promise2 = printNumber2();
   const number1 = await promise1;
   const number2 = await promise2;
}
//Output: Number2 is done, Number1 is done

Solution 5:

I’ve created a gist testing some different ways of resolving promises, with results. It may be helpful to see the options that work.

Solution 6:

The intuitive solution

function wait(ms, data) {
  return new Promise( resolve => setTimeout(resolve, ms, data) );
}

(async function parallel() {

  // step 1 - initiate all promises
  let task1 = wait(2000, 'parallelTask1').catch(e=>e);
  let task2 = wait(500, 'parallelTask2').catch(e=>e);

  // step 2 - await all promises
  task1 = await task1
  task2 = await task2

  // step 3 - all results are 100% ready
  console.log(task1, task2)

})()

With ES6 you can even do this in step 2

[task1, task2] = [await task1, await task2]


PS: You can also await inside calculations

let five = getAsyncFive()
let ten = getAsyncTen()

let result = await five * await ten

“exception handling”

The .catch(e => e) catches the error and passes it down the chain, allowing the promise to resolve, instead of rejecting.

const wait = (ms, data) => new Promise( resolve => setTimeout(resolve, ms, data) )
const reject = (ms, data) => new Promise( (r, reject) => setTimeout(reject, ms, data) )
const e = e => 'err:' + e
const l = l => (console.log(l), l)

;(async function parallel() {

  let task1 = reject(500, 'parallelTask1').catch(e).then(l)
  let task2 = wait(2000, 'parallelTask2').catch(e).then(l)
  let task3 = reject(1000, 'parallelTask3').catch(e).then(l)
  
  console.log('WAITING')

  task1 = await task1
  task2 = await task2
  task3 = await task3

  console.log('FINISHED', task1, task2, task3)

})()