Can you pass parameters to an AngularJS controller on creation?

Can you pass parameters to an AngularJS controller on creation?

I have a controller responsible for communicating with an API to update properties of a user, name, email, etc. Each user has an ‘id’ which is passed from the server when the profile page is viewed.
I would like to pass this value to the AngularJS controller so it knows what the API entry point is for the current user. I’ve tried passing the value in ng-controller. For example:
function UserCtrl(id, $scope, $filter) {

$scope.connection = $resource(‘api.com/user/’ + id)

and in the HTML

where {% id %} print the id sent from the server. but I get errors.
What is the correct way to pass a value into a controller on its creation?

Solutions/Answers:

Solution 1:

Notes:

This answer is old. This is just a proof of concept on how the desired outcome can be achieved. However, it may not be the best solution as per some comments below. I don’t have any documentation to support or reject the following approach. Please refer to some of the comments below for further discussion on this topic.

Original Answer:

I answered this to
Yes you absolutely can do so using ng-init and a simple init function.

Here is the example of it on plunker

HTML

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html ng-app="angularjs-starter">
  <head lang="en">
    <script src="//ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.0.3/angular.min.js"></script>
    <script src="app.js"></script>
  </head>  
  <body ng-controller="MainCtrl" ng-init="init('James Bond','007')">
    <h1>I am  {{name}} {{id}}</h1>
  </body>
</html>

JavaScript

var app = angular.module('angularjs-starter', []);

app.controller('MainCtrl', function($scope) {

  $scope.init = function(name, id)
  {
    //This function is sort of private constructor for controller
    $scope.id = id;
    $scope.name = name; 
    //Based on passed argument you can make a call to resource
    //and initialize more objects
    //$resource.getMeBond(007)
  };


});

Solution 2:

I’m very late to this and I have no idea if this is a good idea, but you can include the $attrs injectable in the controller function allowing the controller to be initialized using “arguments” provided on an element, e.g.

app.controller('modelController', function($scope, $attrs) {
    if (!$attrs.model) throw new Error("No model for modelController");

    // Initialize $scope using the value of the model attribute, e.g.,
    $scope.url = "http://example.com/fetch?model="+$attrs.model;
})

<div ng-controller="modelController" model="foobar">
  <a href="{{url}}">Click here</a>
</div>

Again, no idea if this is a good idea, but it seems to work and is another alternative.

Solution 3:

This also works.

Javascript:

var app = angular.module('angularApp', []);

app.controller('MainCtrl', function($scope, name, id) {
    $scope.id = id;
    $scope.name = name;
    // and more init
});

Html:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html ng-app="angularApp">
  <head lang="en">
    <script src="//ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.0.3/angular.min.js"></script>
    <script src="app.js"></script>
    <script>
       app.value("name", "James").value("id", "007");
    </script>
  </head>
  <body ng-controller="MainCtrl">
    <h1>I am  {{name}} {{id}}</h1>
  </body>
</html>

Solution 4:

Like @akonsu and Nigel Findlater suggest, you can read the url where url is index.html#/user/:id with $routeParams.id and use it inside the controller.

your app:

var app = angular.module('myApp', [ 'ngResource' ]);

app.config(['$routeProvider', function($routeProvider) {
    $routeProvider.when('/:type/:id', {templateUrl: 'myView.html', controller: 'myCtrl'});
}]);

the resource service

app.factory('MyElements', ['$resource', function($resource) {
     return $resource('url/to/json/:type/:id', { type:'@type', id:'@id' });
}]);

the controller

app.controller('MyCtrl', ['$scope', '$routeParams', 'MyElements', function($scope, $routeParams, MyElements) {
    MyElements.get({'type': $routeParams.type, "id": $routeParams.id }, function(elm) {
        $scope.elm = elm;
    })
}]);

then, elm is accessible in the view depending on the id.

Solution 5:

The view should not dictate config

In Angular, the template should never dictate configuration, which is inherently what people desire when they want to pass arguments to controllers from a template file. This becomes a slippery slope. If config settings are hard-coded in templates (such as by a directive or controller argument attribute), you can no longer re-use that template for anything but that single use. Soon you’ll want to re-use that template, but with different config and now in order to do so you’ll either be pre-processing the templates to inject variables before it gets passed to angular or using massive directives to spit out giant blocks of HTML so you re-use all of the controller HTML except for the wrapper div and it’s arguments. For small projects it’s no big deal. For something big (what angular excels at), it gets ugly quick.

The Alternative: Modules

This type of configuration is what modules were designed to handle. In many angular tutorials people have a single module for their entire application, but really the system is designed and fully supports many small modules each which wrap small pieces of the total application. Ideally, controllers, modules etc would be declared in separate files and stitched together in specific re-usable chunks. When your application is designed this way, you get a lot of re-use in addition to easy controller arguments.

The example below has 2 modules, re-using the same controller, but each with their own config settings. That config settings are passed in via dependency injection using module.value. This adheres to the angular way because we have the following: constructor dependency injection, reusable controller code, reusable controller templates (the controller div could easily be included with ng-include), easily unit-testable system without HTML, and lastly re-usable modules as the vehicle for stitching the pieces together.

Here’s an example:

<!-- index.html -->
<div id="module1">
    <div ng-controller="MyCtrl">
        <div>{{foo}}</div>
    </div>
</div>
<div id="module2">
    <div ng-controller="MyCtrl">
        <div>{{foo}}</div>
    </div>
</div>
<script>
    // part of this template, or a JS file designed to be used with this template
    angular.element(document).ready(function() {
        angular.bootstrap(document.getElementById("module1"), ["module1"]);
        angular.bootstrap(document.getElementById("module2"), ["module2"]);
    });
</script>

<!-- scripts which will likely in be in their seperate files -->
<script>
    // MyCtrl.js
    var MyCtrl = function($scope, foo) {
    $scope.foo = foo;
    }

    MyCtrl.$inject = ["$scope", "foo"];

    // Module1.js
    var module1 = angular.module('module1', []);
    module1.value("foo", "fooValue1");
    module1.controller("MyCtrl", MyCtrl);

    // Module2.js file
    var module2 = angular.module('module2', []);
    module2.value("foo", "fooValue2");
    module2.controller("MyCtrl", MyCtrl);
</script>

See it in action: jsFiddle.

Solution 6:

If ng-init is not for passing objects into $scope, you can always write your own directive. So here is what I got:

http://jsfiddle.net/goliney/89bLj/

Javasript:

var app = angular.module('myApp', []);
app.directive('initData', function($parse) {
    return function(scope, element, attrs) {
        //modify scope
        var model = $parse(attrs.initData);
        model(scope);
    };
});

function Ctrl1($scope) {
    //should be defined
    $scope.inputdata = {foo:"east", bar:"west"};
}

Html:

<div ng-controller="Ctrl1">
    <div init-data="inputdata.foo=123; inputdata.bar=321"></div>
</div>

But my approach can only modify objects, which are already defined at controller.