How can I pad a value with leading zeros?

How can I pad a value with leading zeros?

What is the recommended way to zerofill a value in JavaScript? I imagine I could build a custom function to pad zeros on to a typecasted value, but I’m wondering if there is a more direct way to do this?
Note: By “zerofilled” I mean it in the database sense of the word (where a 6-digit zerofilled representation of the number 5 would be “000005”).

Solutions/Answers:

Solution 1:

Note to readers!

As commenters have pointed out, this solution is “clever”, and as
clever solutions often are, it’s memory intensive and relatively
slow. If performance is a concern for you, don’t use this solution!

Potentially outdated: ECMAScript 2017 includes String.prototype.padStart and Number.prototype.toLocaleString is there since ECMAScript 3.1. Example:

var n=-0.1;
n.toLocaleString('en', {minimumIntegerDigits:4,minimumFractionDigits:2,useGrouping:false})

…will output “-0000.10”.

// or 
const padded = (.1+"").padStart(6,"0");
`-${padded}`

…will output “-0000.1”.

A simple function is all you need

function zeroFill( number, width )
{
  width -= number.toString().length;
  if ( width > 0 )
  {
    return new Array( width + (/\./.test( number ) ? 2 : 1) ).join( '0' ) + number;
  }
  return number + ""; // always return a string
}

you could bake this into a library if you want to conserve namespace or whatever. Like with jQuery’s extend.

Solution 2:

Simple way. You could add string multiplication for the pad and turn it into a function.

var pad = "000000";
var n = '5';
var result = (pad+n).slice(-pad.length);

As a function,

function paddy(num, padlen, padchar) {
    var pad_char = typeof padchar !== 'undefined' ? padchar : '0';
    var pad = new Array(1 + padlen).join(pad_char);
    return (pad + num).slice(-pad.length);
}
var fu = paddy(14, 5); // 00014
var bar = paddy(2, 4, '#'); // ###2

Solution 3:

I can’t believe all the complex answers on here… Just use this:

var zerofilled = ('0000'+n).slice(-4);

Solution 4:

I actually had to come up with something like this recently.
I figured there had to be a way to do it without using loops.

This is what I came up with.

function zeroPad(num, numZeros) {
    var n = Math.abs(num);
    var zeros = Math.max(0, numZeros - Math.floor(n).toString().length );
    var zeroString = Math.pow(10,zeros).toString().substr(1);
    if( num < 0 ) {
        zeroString = '-' + zeroString;
    }

    return zeroString+n;
}

Then just use it providing a number to zero pad:

> zeroPad(50,4);
"0050"

If the number is larger than the padding, the number will expand beyond the padding:

> zeroPad(51234, 3);
"51234"

Decimals are fine too!

> zeroPad(51.1234, 4);
"0051.1234"

If you don’t mind polluting the global namespace you can add it to Number directly:

Number.prototype.leftZeroPad = function(numZeros) {
    var n = Math.abs(this);
    var zeros = Math.max(0, numZeros - Math.floor(n).toString().length );
    var zeroString = Math.pow(10,zeros).toString().substr(1);
    if( this < 0 ) {
        zeroString = '-' + zeroString;
    }

    return zeroString+n;
}

And if you’d rather have decimals take up space in the padding:

Number.prototype.leftZeroPad = function(numZeros) {
    var n = Math.abs(this);
    var zeros = Math.max(0, numZeros - n.toString().length );
    var zeroString = Math.pow(10,zeros).toString().substr(1);
    if( this < 0 ) {
        zeroString = '-' + zeroString;
    }

    return zeroString+n;
}

Cheers!



XDR came up with a logarithmic variation that seems to perform better.

WARNING: This function fails if num equals zero (e.g. zeropad(0, 2))

function zeroPad (num, numZeros) {
    var an = Math.abs (num);
    var digitCount = 1 + Math.floor (Math.log (an) / Math.LN10);
    if (digitCount >= numZeros) {
        return num;
    }
    var zeroString = Math.pow (10, numZeros - digitCount).toString ().substr (1);
    return num < 0 ? '-' + zeroString + an : zeroString + an;
}

Speaking of performance, tomsmeding compared the top 3 answers (4 with the log variation). Guess which one majorly outperformed the other two? 🙂

Solution 5:

Here’s what I used to pad a number up to 7 characters.

("0000000" + number).slice(-7)

This approach will probably suffice for most people.

Edit: If you want to make it more generic you can do this:

("0".repeat(padding) + number).slice(-padding)

Solution 6:

Unfortunately, there are a lot of needless complicated suggestions for this problem, typically involving writing your own function to do math or string manipulation or calling a third-party utility. However, there is a standard way of doing this in the base JavaScript library with just one line of code. It might be worth wrapping this one line of code in a function to avoid having to specify parameters that you never want to change like the local name or style.

var amount = 5;

var text = amount.toLocaleString('en-US',
{
    style: 'decimal',
    minimumIntegerDigits: 3,
    useGrouping: false
});

This will produce the value of “005” for text. You can also use the toLocaleString function of Number to pad zeros to the right side of the decimal point.

var amount = 5;

var text = amount.toLocaleString('en-US',
{
    style: 'decimal',
    minimumFractionDigits: 2,
    useGrouping: false
});

This will produce the value of “5.00” for text. Change useGrouping to true to use comma separators for thousands.

Note that using toLocaleString() with locales and options arguments is standardized separately in ECMA-402, not in ECMAScript. As of today, some browsers only implement basic support, i.e. toLocaleString() may ignore any arguments.

Complete Example