Is there a JavaScript function that can pad a string to get to a determined length?

Is there a JavaScript function that can pad a string to get to a determined length?

I am in need of a JavaScript function which can take a value and pad it to a given length (I need spaces, but anything would do). I found this:
Code:
String.prototype.pad = function(l, s, t){
return s || (s = ” “), (l -= this.length) > 0 ? (s = new Array(Math.ceil(l / s.length)
+ 1).join(s)).substr(0, t = !t ? l : t == 1 ? 0 : Math.ceil(l / 2))
+ this + s.substr(0, l – t) : this;
};

Example:

But I have no idea what the heck it is doing and it doesn’t seem to work for me.

Solutions/Answers:

Solution 1:

I found this solution here and this is for me much much simpler:

var n = 123

String("00000" + n).slice(-5); // returns 00123
("00000" + n).slice(-5); // returns 00123
("     " + n).slice(-5); // returns "  123" (with two spaces)

And here I made an extension to the string object:

String.prototype.paddingLeft = function (paddingValue) {
   return String(paddingValue + this).slice(-paddingValue.length);
};

An example to use it:

function getFormattedTime(date) {
  var hours = date.getHours();
  var minutes = date.getMinutes();

  hours = hours.toString().paddingLeft("00");
  minutes = minutes.toString().paddingLeft("00");

  return "{0}:{1}".format(hours, minutes);
};

String.prototype.format = function () {
    var args = arguments;
    return this.replace(/{(\d+)}/g, function (match, number) {
        return typeof args[number] != 'undefined' ? args[number] : match;
    });
};

This will return a time in the format “15:30”

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Solution 2:

A faster method

If you are doing this repeatedly, for example to pad values in an array, and performance is a factor, the following approach can give you nearly a 100x advantage in speed (jsPerf) over other solution that are currently discussed on the inter webs. The basic idea is that you are providing the pad function with a fully padded empty string to use as a buffer. The pad function just appends to string to be added to this pre-padded string (one string concat) and then slices or trims the result to the desired length.

function pad(pad, str, padLeft) {
  if (typeof str === 'undefined') 
    return pad;
  if (padLeft) {
    return (pad + str).slice(-pad.length);
  } else {
    return (str + pad).substring(0, pad.length);
  }
}

For example, to zero pad a number to a length of 10 digits,

pad('0000000000',123,true);

To pad a string with whitespace, so the entire string is 255 characters,

var padding = Array(256).join(' '), // make a string of 255 spaces
pad(padding,123,true);

Performance Test

See the jsPerf test here.

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And this is faster than ES6 string.repeat by 2x as well, as shown by the revised JsPerf here

Solution 3:

http://www.webtoolkit.info/javascript_pad.html

/**
*
*  Javascript string pad
*  http://www.webtoolkit.info/
*
**/

var STR_PAD_LEFT = 1;
var STR_PAD_RIGHT = 2;
var STR_PAD_BOTH = 3;

function pad(str, len, pad, dir) {

    if (typeof(len) == "undefined") { var len = 0; }
    if (typeof(pad) == "undefined") { var pad = ' '; }
    if (typeof(dir) == "undefined") { var dir = STR_PAD_RIGHT; }

    if (len + 1 >= str.length) {

        switch (dir){

            case STR_PAD_LEFT:
                str = Array(len + 1 - str.length).join(pad) + str;
            break;

            case STR_PAD_BOTH:
                var padlen = len - str.length;
                var right = Math.ceil( padlen / 2 );
                var left = padlen - right;
                str = Array(left+1).join(pad) + str + Array(right+1).join(pad);
            break;

            default:
                str = str + Array(len + 1 - str.length).join(pad);
            break;

        } // switch

    }

    return str;

}

It’s a lot more readable.

Solution 4:

Here’s a recursive approach to it.

function pad(width, string, padding) { 
  return (width <= string.length) ? string : pad(width, padding + string, padding)
}

An example…

pad(5, 'hi', '0')
=> "000hi"

Solution 5:

String.prototype.padStart() and String.prototype.padEnd() are currently TC39 candidate proposals: see github.com/tc39/proposal-string-pad-start-end (only available in Firefox as of April 2016; a polyfill is available).

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Solution 6:

Using the ECMAScript 6 method String#repeat, a pad function is as simple as:

String.prototype.padLeft = function(char, length) { 
    return char.repeat(Math.max(0, length - this.length)) + this;
}

String#repeat is currently supported in Firefox and Chrome only. for other implementation, one might consider the following simple polyfill:

String.prototype.repeat = String.prototype.repeat || function(n){ 
    return n<=1 ? this : (this + this.repeat(n-1)); 
}