var functionName = function() {} vs function functionName() {}

var functionName = function() {} vs function functionName() {}

I’ve recently started maintaining someone else’s JavaScript code. I’m fixing bugs, adding features and also trying to tidy up the code and make it more consistent.
The previous developer uses two ways of declaring functions and I can’t work out if there is a reason behind it or not.
The two ways are:
var functionOne = function() {
// Some code
};

function functionTwo() {
// Some code
}

What are the reasons for using these two different methods and what are the pros and cons of each? Is there anything that can be done with one method that can’t be done with the other?

Solutions/Answers:

Solution 1:

The difference is that functionOne is a function expression and so only defined when that line is reached, whereas functionTwo is a function declaration and is defined as soon as its surrounding function or script is executed (due to hoisting).

For example, a function expression:

// TypeError: functionOne is not a function
functionOne();

var functionOne = function() {
  console.log("Hello!");
};

And, a function declaration:

// Outputs: "Hello!"
functionTwo();

function functionTwo() {
  console.log("Hello!");
}

This also means you can’t conditionally define functions using function declarations:

if (test) {
   // Error or misbehavior
   function functionThree() { doSomething(); }
}

The above actually defines functionThree irrespective of test‘s value — unless use strict is in effect, in which case it simply raises an error.

Solution 2:

First I want to correct Greg: function abc(){} is scoped too — the name abc is defined in the scope where this definition is encountered. Example:

function xyz(){
  function abc(){};
  // abc is defined here...
}
// ...but not here

Secondly, it is possible to combine both styles:

var xyz = function abc(){};

xyz is going to be defined as usual, abc is undefined in all browsers but Internet Explorer — do not rely on it being defined. But it will be defined inside its body:

var xyz = function abc(){
  // xyz is visible here
  // abc is visible here
}
// xyz is visible here
// abc is undefined here

If you want to alias functions on all browsers, use this kind of declaration:

function abc(){};
var xyz = abc;

In this case, both xyz and abc are aliases of the same object:

console.log(xyz === abc); // prints "true"

One compelling reason to use the combined style is the “name” attribute of function objects (not supported by Internet Explorer). Basically when you define a function like

function abc(){};
console.log(abc.name); // prints "abc"

its name is automatically assigned. But when you define it like

var abc = function(){};
console.log(abc.name); // prints ""

its name is empty — we created an anonymous function and assigned it to some variable.

Another good reason to use the combined style is to use a short internal name to refer to itself, while providing a long non-conflicting name for external users:

// Assume really.long.external.scoped is {}
really.long.external.scoped.name = function shortcut(n){
  // Let it call itself recursively:
  shortcut(n - 1);
  // ...
  // Let it pass itself as a callback:
  someFunction(shortcut);
  // ...
}

In the example above we can do the same with an external name, but it’ll be too unwieldy (and slower).

(Another way to refer to itself is to use arguments.callee, which is still relatively long, and not supported in the strict mode.)

Deep down, JavaScript treats both statements differently. This is a function declaration:

function abc(){}

abc here is defined everywhere in the current scope:

// We can call it here
abc(); // Works

// Yet, it is defined down there.
function abc(){}

// We can call it again
abc(); // Works

Also, it hoisted through a return statement:

// We can call it here
abc(); // Works
return;
function abc(){}

This is a function expression:

var xyz = function(){};

xyz here is defined from the point of assignment:

// We can't call it here
xyz(); // UNDEFINED!!!

// Now it is defined
xyz = function(){}

// We can call it here
xyz(); // works

Function declaration vs. function expression is the real reason why there is a difference demonstrated by Greg.

Fun fact:

var xyz = function abc(){};
console.log(xyz.name); // Prints "abc"

Personally, I prefer the “function expression” declaration because this way I can control the visibility. When I define the function like

var abc = function(){};

I know that I defined the function locally. When I define the function like

abc = function(){};

I know that I defined it globally providing that I didn’t define abc anywhere in the chain of scopes. This style of definition is resilient even when used inside eval(). While the definition

function abc(){};

depends on the context and may leave you guessing where it is actually defined, especially in the case of eval() — the answer is: It depends on the browser.

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Solution 3:

Here’s the rundown on the standard forms that create functions: (Originally written for another question, but adapted after being moved into the canonical question.)

Terms:

The quick list:

  • Function Declaration

  • “Anonymous” function Expression (which despite the term, sometimes create functions with names)

  • Named function Expression

  • Accessor Function Initializer (ES5+)

  • Arrow Function Expression (ES2015+) (which, like anonymous function expressions, don’t involve an explicit name, and yet can create functions with names)

  • Method Declaration in Object Initializer (ES2015+)

  • Constructor and Method Declarations in class (ES2015+)

Function Declaration

The first form is a function declaration, which looks like this:

function x() {
    console.log('x');
}

A function declaration is a declaration; it’s not a statement or expression. As such, you don’t follow it with a ; (although doing so is harmless).

A function declaration is processed when execution enters the context in which it appears, before any step-by-step code is executed. The function it creates is given a proper name (x in the example above), and that name is put in the scope in which the declaration appears.

Because it’s processed before any step-by-step code in the same context, you can do things like this:

x(); // Works even though it's above the declaration
function x() {
    console.log('x');
}

Until ES2015, the spec didn’t cover what a JavaScript engine should do if you put a function declaration inside a control structure like try, if, switch, while, etc., like this:

if (someCondition) {
    function foo() {    // <===== HERE THERE
    }                   // <===== BE DRAGONS
}

And since they’re processed before step-by-step code is run, it’s tricky to know what to do when they’re in a control structure.

Although doing this wasn’t specified until ES2015, it was an allowable extension to support function declarations in blocks. Unfortunately (and inevitably), different engines did different things.

As of ES2015, the specification says what to do. In fact, it gives three separate things to do:

  1. If in loose mode not on a web browser, the JavaScript engine is supposed to do one thing
  2. If in loose mode on a web browser, the JavaScript engine is supposed to do something else
  3. If in strict mode (browser or not), the JavaScript engine is supposed to do yet another thing

The rules for the loose modes are tricky, but in strict mode, function declarations in blocks are easy: They’re local to the block (they have block scope, which is also new in ES2015), and they’re hoisted to the top of the block. So:

"use strict";
if (someCondition) {
    foo();               // Works just fine
    function foo() {
    }
}
console.log(typeof foo); // "undefined" (`foo` is not in scope here
                         // because it's not in the same block)

“Anonymous” function Expression

The second common form is called an anonymous function expression:

var y = function () {
    console.log('y');
};

Like all expressions, it’s evaluated when it’s reached in the step-by-step execution of the code.

In ES5, the function this creates has no name (it’s anonymous). In ES2015, the function is assigned a name if possible by inferring it from context. In the example above, the name would be y. Something similar is done when the function is the value of a property initializer. (For details on when this happens and the rules, search for SetFunctionName in the the specification — it appears all over the place.)

Named function Expression

The third form is a named function expression (“NFE”):

var z = function w() {
    console.log('zw')
};

The function this creates has a proper name (w in this case). Like all expressions, this is evaluated when it’s reached in the step-by-step execution of the code. The name of the function is not added to the scope in which the expression appears; the name is in scope within the function itself:

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var z = function w() {
    console.log(typeof w); // "function"
};
console.log(typeof w);     // "undefined"

Note that NFEs have frequently been a source of bugs for JavaScript implementations. IE8 and earlier, for instance, handle NFEs completely incorrectly, creating two different functions at two different times. Early versions of Safari had issues as well. The good news is that current versions of browsers (IE9 and up, current Safari) don’t have those issues any more. (But as of this writing, sadly, IE8 remains in widespread use, and so using NFEs with code for the web in general is still problematic.)

Accessor Function Initializer (ES5+)

Sometimes functions can sneak in largely unnoticed; that’s the case with accessor functions. Here’s an example:

var obj = {
    value: 0,
    get f() {
        return this.value;
    },
    set f(v) {
        this.value = v;
    }
};
console.log(obj.f);         // 0
console.log(typeof obj.f);  // "number"

Note that when I used the function, I didn’t use ()! That’s because it’s an accessor function for a property. We get and set the property in the normal way, but behind the scenes, the function is called.

You can also create accessor functions with Object.defineProperty, Object.defineProperties, and the lesser-known second argument to Object.create.

Arrow Function Expression (ES2015+)

ES2015 brings us the arrow function. Here’s one example:

var a = [1, 2, 3];
var b = a.map(n => n * 2);
console.log(b.join(", ")); // 2, 4, 6

See that n => n * 2 thing hiding in the map() call? That’s a function.

A couple of things about arrow functions:

  1. They don’t have their own this. Instead, they close over the this of the context where they’re defined. (They also close over arguments and, where relevant, super.) This means that the this within them is the same as the this where they’re created, and cannot be changed.

  2. As you’ll have noticed with the above, you don’t use the keyword function; instead, you use =>.

The n => n * 2 example above is one form of them. If you have multiple arguments to pass the function, you use parens:

var a = [1, 2, 3];
var b = a.map((n, i) => n * i);
console.log(b.join(", ")); // 0, 2, 6

(Remember that Array#map passes the entry as the first argument, and the index as the second.)

In both cases, the body of the function is just an expression; the function’s return value will automatically be the result of that expression (you don’t use an explicit return).

If you’re doing more than just a single expression, use {} and an explicit return (if you need to return a value), as normal:

var a = [
  {first: "Joe", last: "Bloggs"},
  {first: "Albert", last: "Bloggs"},
  {first: "Mary", last: "Albright"}
];
a = a.sort((a, b) => {
  var rv = a.last.localeCompare(b.last);
  if (rv === 0) {
    rv = a.first.localeCompare(b.first);
  }
  return rv;
});
console.log(JSON.stringify(a));

The version without { ... } is called an arrow function with an expression body or concise body. (Also: A concise arrow function.) The one with { ... } defining the body is an arrow function with a function body. (Also: A verbose arrow function.)

Method Declaration in Object Initializer (ES2015+)

ES2015 allows a shorter form of declaring a property that references a function called a method definition; it looks like this:

var o = {
    foo() {
    }
};

the almost-equivalent in ES5 and earlier would be:

var o = {
    foo: function foo() {
    }
};

the difference (other than verbosity) is that a method can use super, but a function cannot. So for instance, if you had an object that defined (say) valueOf using method syntax, it could use super.valueOf() to get the value Object.prototype.valueOf would have returned (before presumably doing something else with it), whereas the ES5 version would have to do Object.prototype.valueOf.call(this) instead.

That also means that the method has a reference to the object it was defined on, so if that object is temporary (for instance, you’re passing it into Object.assign as one of the source objects), method syntax could mean that the object is retained in memory when otherwise it could have been garbage collected (if the JavaScript engine doesn’t detect that situation and handle it if none of the methods uses super).

Constructor and Method Declarations in class (ES2015+)

ES2015 brings us class syntax, including declared constructors and methods:

class Person {
    constructor(firstName, lastName) {
        this.firstName = firstName;
        this.lastName = lastName;
    }

    getFullName() {
        return this.firstName + " " + this.lastName;
    }
}

There are two function declarations above: One for the constructor, which gets the name Person, and one for getFullName, which is a function assigned to Person.prototype.

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Solution 4:

Speaking about the global context, both, the var statement and a FunctionDeclaration at the end will create a non-deleteable property on the global object, but the value of both can be overwritten.

The subtle difference between the two ways is that when the Variable Instantiation process runs (before the actual code execution) all identifiers declared with var will be initialized with undefined, and the ones used by the FunctionDeclaration‘s will be available since that moment, for example:

 alert(typeof foo); // 'function', it's already available
 alert(typeof bar); // 'undefined'
 function foo () {}
 var bar = function () {};
 alert(typeof bar); // 'function'

The assignment of the bar FunctionExpression takes place until runtime.

A global property created by a FunctionDeclaration can be overwritten without any problems just like a variable value, e.g.:

 function test () {}
 test = null;

Another obvious difference between your two examples is that the first function doesn’t have a name, but the second has it, which can be really useful when debugging (i.e. inspecting a call stack).

About your edited first example (foo = function() { alert('hello!'); };), it is an undeclared assignment, I would highly encourage you to always use the var keyword.

With an assignment, without the var statement, if the referenced identifier is not found in the scope chain, it will become a deleteable property of the global object.

Also, undeclared assignments throw a ReferenceError on ECMAScript 5 under Strict Mode.

A must read:

Note: This answer has been merged from another question, in which the major doubt and misconception from the OP was that identifiers declared with a FunctionDeclaration, couldn’t be overwritten which is not the case.

Solution 5:

The two code snippets you’ve posted there will, for almost all purposes, behave the same way.

However, the difference in behaviour is that with the first variant (var functionOne = function() {}), that function can only be called after that point in the code.

With the second variant (function functionTwo()), the function is available to code that runs above where the function is declared.

This is because with the first variant, the function is assigned to the variable foo at run time. In the second, the function is assigned to that identifier, foo, at parse time.

More technical information

JavaScript has three ways of defining functions.

  1. Your first snippet shows a function expression. This involves using the “function” operator to create a function – the result of that operator can be stored in any variable or object property. The function expression is powerful that way. The function expression is often called an “anonymous function”, because it does not have to have a name,
  2. Your second example is a function declaration. This uses the “function” statement to create a function. The function is made available at parse time and can be called anywhere in that scope. You can still store it in a variable or object property later.
  3. The third way of defining a function is the “Function()” constructor, which is not shown in your original post. It’s not recommended to use this as it works the same way as eval(), which has its problems.

Solution 6:

A better explanation to Greg’s answer

functionTwo();
function functionTwo() {
}

Why no error? We were always taught that expressions are executed from top to bottom(??)

Because:

Function declarations and variable declarations are always moved (hoisted) invisibly to the top of their containing scope by the JavaScript interpreter. Function parameters and language-defined names are, obviously, already there. ben cherry

This means that code like this:

functionOne();                  ---------------      var functionOne;
                                | is actually |      functionOne();
var functionOne = function(){   | interpreted |-->
};                              |    like     |      functionOne = function(){
                                ---------------      };

Notice that the assignment portion of the declarations were not hoisted. Only the name is hoisted.

But in the case with function declarations, the entire function body will be hoisted as well:

functionTwo();              ---------------      function functionTwo() {
                            | is actually |      };
function functionTwo() {    | interpreted |-->
}                           |    like     |      functionTwo();
                            ---------------