## What does ~~ (“double tilde”) do in Javascript?

I was checking out an online game physics library today and came across the ~~ operator. I know a single ~ is a bitwise NOT, would that make ~~ a NOT of a NOT, which would give back the same value, wouldn’t it?

## Solutions/Answers:

### Solution 1:

It removes everything after the decimal point because the bitwise operators implicitly convert their operands to signed 32-bit integers. This works whether the operands are (floating-point) numbers or strings, and the result is a number.

In other words, it yields:

```
function(x) {
if(x < 0) return Math.ceil(x);
else return Math.floor(x);
}
```

only if *x* is between -(2^{31}) and 2^{31} – 1. Otherwise, overflow will occur and the number will “wrap around”.

This may be considered useful to convert a function’s string argument to a number, but both because of the possibility of overflow and that it is incorrect for use with non-integers, I would not use it that way except for “code golf” (*i.e.* pointlessly trimming bytes off the source code of your program at the expense of readability and robustness). I would use `+x`

or `Number(x)`

instead.

### How this is the NOT of the NOT

The number -43.2, for example is:

-43.2

_{10}= 11111111111111111111111111010101_{2}

as a signed (two’s complement) 32-bit binary number. (JavaScript ignores what is after the decimal point.) Inverting the bits gives:

NOT -43

_{10}= 00000000000000000000000000101010_{2}= 42_{10}

Inverting again gives:

NOT 42

_{10}= 11111111111111111111111111010101_{2}= -43_{10}

This differs from `Math.floor(-43.2)`

in that negative numbers are rounded toward zero, not away from it. (The floor function, which would equal -44, always rounds down to the next lower integer, regardless of whether the number is positive or negative.)

### Solution 2:

The first ~ operator forces the operand to an integer (possibly after coercing the value to a string or a boolean), then inverts the lowest 31 bits. Officially ECMAScript numbers are all floating-point, but some numbers are implemented as 31-bit integers in the SpiderMonkey engine.

You can use it to turn a 1-element array into an integer. Floating-points are converted according to the C rule, ie. truncation of the fractional part.

The second ~ operator then inverts the bits back, so you know that you will have an integer. This is not the same as coercing a value to boolean in a condition statement, because an empty object {} evaluates to true, whereas ~~{} evaluates to false.

```
js>~~"yes"
0
js>~~3
3
js>~~"yes"
0
js>~~false
0
js>~~""
0
js>~~true
1
js>~~"3"
3
js>~~{}
0
js>~~{a:2}
0
js>~~[2]
2
js>~~[2,3]
0
js>~~{toString: function() {return 4}}
4
js>~~NaN
0
js>~~[4.5]
4
js>~~5.6
5
js>~~-5.6
-5
```

### Solution 3:

In ECMAScript 6, the equivalent of `~~`

is Math.trunc:

Returns the integral part of a number by removing any fractional digits. It does not round any numbers.

```
Math.trunc(13.37) // 13
Math.trunc(42.84) // 42
Math.trunc(0.123) // 0
Math.trunc(-0.123) // -0
Math.trunc("-1.123")// -1
Math.trunc(NaN) // NaN
Math.trunc("foo") // NaN
Math.trunc() // NaN
```

The polyfill:

```
function trunc(x) {
return x < 0 ? Math.ceil(x) : Math.floor(x);
}
```

### Solution 4:

The `~`

seems to do `-(N+1)`

. So `~2 == -(2 + 1) == -3`

If you do it again on -3 it turns it back: `~-3 == -(-3 + 1) == 2`

It probably just converts a string to a number in a round-about way.

See this thread: http://www.sitepoint.com/forums/showthread.php?t=663275

Also, more detailed info is available here: http://dreaminginjavascript.wordpress.com/2008/07/04/28/

### Solution 5:

Given `~N`

is `-(N+1)`

, `~~N`

is then `-(-(N+1) + 1)`

. Which, evidently, leads to a neat trick.

### Solution 6:

Just a bit of a warning. The other answers here got me into some trouble.

The intent is to remove anything after the decimal point of a floating point number, but it has some corner cases that make it a bug hazard. I’d recommend avoiding ~~.

First, ~~ doesn’t work on very large numbers.

`~~1000000000000 == -727279968`

As an alternative, use `Math.trunc()`

(as Gajus mentioned, `Math.trunc()`

returns the integer part of a floating point number but is only available in ECMAScript 6 compliant JavaScript). You can always make your own `Math.trunc()`

for non-ECMAScript-6 environments by doing this:

```
if(!Math.trunc){
Math.trunc = function(value){
return Math.sign(value) * Math.floor(Math.abs(value));
}
}
```

I wrote a blog post on this for reference: http://bitlords.blogspot.com/2016/08/the-double-tilde-x-technique-in.html